Term Definition
Sgraffito 0 likes
A type of decoration produced by scratching through a surface to uncover a lower layer of a contrasting color, usually employed on walls in plaster or stucco, or in slip on ceramics prior to firing; means scratched in Italian
Shade1 like
A small variation
A blind attached to a window
A screen for heat, sun, or light
Color gradation
Color created by a pigment or mixture with some black
Shaded-Pole Motor1 like
shaded-pole motor
A small a-c single-phase induction motor in which the auxiliary winding has a copper ring that surrounds a part of each pole
Shading 0 likes
Bending or crushing carpet pile so that the fibers reflect light in an irregular manner; an intrinsic property of various pile fabrics
Shading Coefficient 0 likes
The ratio of total solar heat conveyed through a glass sheet to that conveyed via a clear double-strength glass sheet
Shading Lacquer 0 likes
Colored transparent lacquer applied with a spray gun in shading
Shadowing 0 likes
See Joint Photographing
The finish when earlier coats of paint show through the final coat
Shaft 0 likes
An intact upright passage in a multi-story building for wiring, elevators, ductwork, or plumbing
Shaft Gas Engine (Horizontal) 1 like
Engine that has gas-saving overhead valves for cooler, cleaner performance and longer life used  for lawn mowers, log-splitters and numerous other machines
Shaft Wall 0 likes
A wall around a shaft
Fire-rated drywall system that surrounds a shaft
Shag Carpet1 like
shag carpet
Long, rough or matted fiber carpet where the surface has long twisted loops
Shake 0 likes
Cedar or redwood roofing material, can be machine sawn on one side along the grain line; See shingle
Shake Roof 0 likes
A home roof cover that consists of cedar thick wooden shingles hand cut from split logs
Shale 1 like
A soft rock created from consolidated mud or clay
Shall 1 like
A mandatory term employed in most property contracts, laws, and specifications
Sharp Luster 0 likes
An extremely high gloss
Sharp Sand 0 likes
Rough sand with angular particles
Shear 0 likes
A force impact that is lateral, and at right angles to the structure’s axis
Shear Diagram 0 likes
A graphic illustration of the significance of shear stresses on a member
Shear Stud 0 likes
When a beam and the concrete function as one structural member as a result of a piece of steel being welded to the uppermost part of steel beam, and is then embedded in the concrete fill over the beam; a stud that conveys shear stress between metal and concrete in composite structural members in which the stud is welded to the metal part
Shear Wall 0 likes
A wall that opposes lateral forces parallel to the wall
A wall component of a structural frame that opposes lateral forces such as an earthquake or wind, acting in or parallel to the wall; composed of braced panels to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure; See Shear Panel
Shearing 0 likes
Finishing of carpet where stray fibers and fuzz are detached, resulting in a smooth even surface on cut pile
Sheathing 1 like
The coarse cover spread over the external surface of a roof, floor framing, or wall
See Gypsum Sheathing
Sheathing Paper 0 likes
Water resilient paper placed over sheathing and below siding or shingles for insulation; building paper
Sheathing, Roof 0 likes
See Roof Sheathing
Sheathing, Wall 0 likes
See Wall Sheathing
Shed1 like
A small building, either free standing or attached to another building, generally used for storage
Shed Roof2 likes
shed roof
A roof with one sloping plane
Shedding 0 likes
See Fluffing
Sheen 0 likes
Special kind of gloss, bright, soft, and shiny
Sheet Asphalt 0 likes
Asphalt which yields a smooth surface and is employed for continuous road surfacing
Sheet Glass 0 likes
Window glass
Sheet Lead 1 like
Coldrolled lead sheet where the thickness is expressed in terms of the weight of one square foot
Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractors National Association 1 like
Sheet Metal Fabrication Kit 0 likes
Used to make wheel tubs, battery trays, dashboards, fire walls, floor pans, sheet metal parts, and accessories.
Sheet Metal Work 1 like
All parts of a structure employing sheet metal, such as flashing and gutters
Sheet Piling 0 likes
Concrete, lumbar, or steel planking or sheeting fastened together to produce a strong wall that opposes lateral pressures of water, soil and other substances
Sheet Plastic0 likes
sheet plastic
Plastic that is thin relative to its length and width
Sheet Rock- Drywall-Wall Board or Gypsum 1 like
A fabricated gypsum plaster panel wrapped in a slim cardboard; Green board drywall is more resistant to moisture than regular white plasterboard and is employed in bathrooms and other moist areas
Sheeting 2 likes
7/8 inch tongue and groove board
Sheetrock 0 likes
See Gypsum Board
Sheetrock Beam 1 like
A horizontal component made of plasterboard
Sheetrock Finishing 0 likes
Last sanding and coating of gypsum board seams in preparation for paint
Shelf1 like
A horizontal installed surface where objects are placed
Shelf Angle 0 likes
A steel angle secured to the spandrel of a structure to reinforce a masonry facing
Shelf Life 0 likes
The time a substance can be maintained at a particular temperature and remain useful; also called Storage Life
Shelf Pin1 like
shelf pin
A pin placed in a hole in a vertical part of a cupboard or bookcase to reinforce a shelf; also called a Shelf Support or Shelf Rest
Shelf Rest 0 likes
See Shelf Pin
Shelf Support 0 likes
See Shelf Pin
Shelf, Checkroom 2 likes
See Checkroom Shelf
Shelter, Golf 0 likes
See Golf Shelter
Shelter, Truck1 like
shelter, truck
See Truck Shelter
Shelving1 like
Installed horizontal surface on which objects are placed
Shepherd Violet Toner 0 likes
A pigment which is highly resistant to acids and light
Sherardizing 0 likes
A protecting coating on metal like galvanizing; ideal for small parts and parts that need coating of inner surfaces, such as batches of small items
SHGF 0 likes
Solar heat gain through fenestration
Shield, Expansion 1 like
See Expansion Shield
Shielded Metal-Arc Weld 1 like
A manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to lay the weld; an electric current from a welding power supply is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined; as the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination
Shielding 0 likes
A way of safeguarding adjoining work by placing provisional protecting sheets of inflexible material during welding; especially employed for machine functions
Shim1 like
A usually wedge shaped, thin piece of wood, plastic or metal that is employed to properly position an object, typically by tweaking a level or filling a space
Shingle 0 likes
A small thin fabricated piece of flat tile, usually composed of wood or asphalt, cut to specific size, positioned in overlapping rows to cover a roof or the walls of a structure
To cover a surface with shingles, or to position sheet material in overlapping rows to provide a shingle-like appearance
Shingle Butt 0 likes
The shingle’s lower unprotected edge
Shingle Principle 1 like
The overlapping of materials to facilitate rainwater running safely down the surface without damage
Shingle Roof 0 likes
Thin pieces of wedge-shaped wood, asphalt, slate, asbestos or tile employed in overlapping courses to protect and cover a roof
Shingle, Cedar 0 likes
See Cedar Shingle
Shingle, Metal 0 likes
See Metal Shingle
Ship and Galley Tile 0 likes
A distinctive quarry tile with a pattern notched into its face to inhibit slippage
Ship Bottom Paint1 like
ship bottom paint
Anti-corrosive paint employed on the underside of a ship
Shiplap 0 likes
A board with grooved edges overlapping evenly from board to board
Lamination that counterbalances two gypsumboard layers
Shiplapped Lumber 0 likes
Edge-dressed lumber that produces a lap joint; See Ship Lap
Shipping-Dry Lumber 0 likes
Lumber that is partly dried to thwart stain and mold during transportation
Ships Ladder 0 likes
Fabricated wood or metal ladder sloping between 50 and 77 degrees with steps and rails
Shoe 0 likes
A shaped metal area employed in fastening metal studs to the tracks on floors and ceilings
A channel’s end section, typically rotated at 90 degrees that enables connection to other channels
A mechanism that retards or stops the motion of an object
Shoe Mold 1 like
See Base Shoe
Shooting 0 likes
See Sprouting
Shop Coated 0 likes
Shop Primed
Shop Drawing 0 likes
Comprehensive construction drawing, furnished by subcontractors, containing a breakdown of the details of a project
Shop Drawing Stamp 1 like
A rubber stamp employed by architects, contractors, and engineers to specify their decision on shop drawings
Shop Lathe 0 likes
A machine that facilitates an object revolving around a horizontal axis so that a cutter can reshape it
Shop Painted 0 likes
Paint coat, typically an anti-corrosive primer, applied in the shop, which may be covered by extra coats onsite at a later date
Shop Press1 like
12 ton Shop Press
Employed for the repair of electric motors and armatures, installation and removal of pressure-fitted parts and bending or straightening metal.
Shop Primed 0 likes
Shop painted
Shopping Center 0 likes
Several businesses or stores with accompanying parking provisions
Shopping Mall 0 likes
Large building or buildings containing a variety of shops, walkways, and parking facilities
Shore 1 like
Temporary support to prevent a wall from falling by propping something against it
Shoring 0 likes
Temporary bracing to prop up walls and stop it from falling
Timber employed to support a wall or beam for shortterm support
Short 1 like
Paint that lacks a consistent look because there are no easy brushing liquids
Short Circuit 0 likes
When hot and neutral wires connect; circuit breakers and fuses serve as safeguards against fires that occur from short circuits
Short Cycling 0 likes
When a refrigerating system begins and ends more often than normal
Short Term Debt 1 like
Mortgages and loans due in less than 12 months
Shot Blasting 0 likes
Blast cleaning that employs steel shot to serve as an abrasive
Shotcrete 1 like
Concrete, or occasionally mortar, conveyed through a hose and pneumatically projected at high speed onto a surface, as a construction technique; an all-inclusive term that can be used for both wet-mix and dry-mix versions. In the pool construction trade however, the term shotcrete refers to wet-mix and gunite refers to dry-mix; in this context, these two terms are not interchangeable
Should 0 likes
Term that means recommended but not mandatory as when shall is employed in most construction specifications, laws, and contracts
Shoulder 0 likes
Space flanked by the diminished edge and the face of a gypsum board
Shoulder Eye Bolt1 like
shoulder eye bolt
A bolt device with an eye connection for the head
Shove Joints 0 likes
Upright joints that are filled by pushing a brick against mortar on the adjacent brick in a mortar bed
Shovel1 like
A manual tool with a handle and a scoop employed to dig, raise, and place materials
Show Window 0 likes
A window employed for the display of goods or advertising; may be totally or partially sealed off
Shower 0 likes
A way of washing where a person stands under a spray of water from a nozzle
Shower Compartment 0 likes
An enclosed stall where a person stands while water is showered from a nozzle
Shower Diverter Valve2 likes
shower diverter valve
Bath tub faucet valve that diverts water to the shower nozzle over the tub
Shower Door2 likes
shower door
An unbreakable plastic or shatterproof glass door, employed in a shower compartment or in a shower-bathtub combination
Shower Faucet1 like
Water faucet fabricated specifically for a shower
Shower Floor, Waterproof Membrane 1 like
A roofing membrane that serves as a waterproof floor over the substrate; tiles are then installed on a wire reinforced bed of mortar
Shower Pan 1 like
Sheet metal, masonry, or plastic prefabrication that serves as a shower floor
A waterproof membrane
Shower Receptor1 like
Shower Receptor
The floor and walls up to and inclusive of the shower curb
Shower Receptor Liner 0 likes
Waterproof membrane beneath the floor of a shower; also called Shower Receptor Lining
Shower Receptor Lining 0 likes
See Shower Receptor Liner
Shower Rod1 like
shower rod
A horizontal bar on which a curtain is attached to stop water from leaving a shower
Shrinkage 1 like
Minor concave hollow in the joint treatment; typically as a result of an excessively thin mix of joint compound In a gypsumboard joint; also called a Starved Joint
Contraction in volume as a result of drying
Contraction of a material as a result of the loss of a volatile substance, or by chemical or physical change in the material
Shroud1 like
Protective covering
Shrub Moving 0 likes
Excavating a shrub with its complete root system and repositioning it to another area
Shunt1 like
A conductor connecting two points of a circuit enabling a current to be redirected
Shut-off Valve2 likes
shut-off valve
A supply line valve that shuts down and opens the flow of liquid, rarely employed to thwart flow
Shutter1 like
Louvered, ornamental, light, framed doors positioned on each side to form a barrier; some shutters close over the window to serve as protection
SI 0 likes
French, System International d Unites; International System of Units
Side and End Matched 0 likes
Wooden strip floor with grooves and tongues on the sides and ends
Side Hill 0 likes
Incline that intersects the line of work
Side Jamb 0 likes
Upright pieces to a window or door opening on which the window or door lie
Side Lumber 0 likes
A board from the external part of a log
Side Seams 0 likes
Seam spanning a carpet’s length; also called a Length Seam
Side Sewer 0 likes
The part of the sanitary sewer that connects the internal waste water lines to the main sewer lines; extends from the house to the sewer line under some feet of soil; maintained by the owner and serviced by utility-authorized contractors; also called Sewer lateral
Side Vent 0 likes
A vent connecting with the drain pipe via no more than a 45 degree Y
Side Yard 0 likes
The area between a structure and the property line on the side
Side-Grained Wood 0 likes
Flat-grained lumber
Sidelap 1 like
The least distance in which horizontal neighboring elements of roofing overlap, measured in inches
Sidelight1 like
High, slender window beside a door
Sidewalk 0 likes
A walkway for pedestrians on the side of a street or road
Sidewalk Doors 0 likes
Aluminum or steel doors on a sidewalk that lead to a basement
Siding 1 like
The finished outside cover of the exterior walls of a frame building
Siding, Lap 0 likes
Somewhat wedge-shaped boards employed as horizontal, lapped siding above the exterior sheathing; butt thickness ranges from ½ to ¾ inch and in width no more than 12 inches
Siding, Steel 0 likes
See Steel Siding
Sienna 1 like
A brown-red pigment when raw and orange- red or red-brown when burnt
Sieve1 like
A utensil made of a wire or plastic mesh held in a frame, employed for straining solids from liquids, for separating rougher from finer particles, or for reducing soft solids to a pulp; also called a Screen
Sieve Analysis 0 likes
Ascertaining the ratio of particles of granular material within particular size ranges on sieves with various sized apertures; see Gradation
Sight Gauge 0 likes
See Sight Glass
Sight Glass 1 like
A transparent tube or window through which the level of liquid in a supply line or reservoir can be monitored visually; also called a Sight Gauge
Sign2 likes
A posted command, warning, notice, or direction
Sign, Electric1 like
electric sign
See Electric Sign
Signage 1 like
Any one of a group of posted commands, warnings, notices, or directions
Signal Circuit 0 likes
An electrical circuit providing energy to an appliance with a detectible signal, such as for buzzers, signal lights, and door bells
Signboard 0 likes
A sign
Silex 1 like
A type of chemically inactive silica employed expansively in producing paste wood fillers that moisture resistant and does not shrink
Silica 0 likes
An oxide of silicon, occurring in nature as quartz, or combined with other elements
Silica Gel1 like
silica gel
A granular, vitreous, porous form of silicon dioxide produced synthetically from sodium silicate; tough and hard, it is more solid than common household gels; naturally occurring mineral that is purified and processed into granular or beaded form; employed as a desiccant
Silica Sand 0 likes
Fine white fine sand made of silica
An inactive pigment produced from quartz rock, extremely resistant to acids, alkalis, light and heat
A mineral generally in the clay employed in producing bricks
Silicate of Soda 1 like
See Water Glass
Silicate Paint1 like
silicate paint
Paint that uses silicates as binders; employed primarily in inorganic zinc-rich coats
Siliceous 0 likes
Contains silicon or silicate
Silicon 0 likes
A non-metallic element in silica and silicates, employed in the production of glass, alloys, and electric mechanisms
Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) 0 likes
Electronic semi-conductor which consists of silicon
Silk Screen Finishing 1 like
Finishing process where paint is pushed through open meshes of a fabric screen; parts of the screen are blocked and do not print in order to furnish the design
Silking 0 likes
A surface flaw marked by parallel hair-like striped patterns in coated films
Sill 0 likes
Wood plate framing component that lies flat and bolted to the foundation wall on which the floor joists are mounted
The beam forming the underside of an aperture, such as a window sill or door sill
Debris dumped by water in a water course
Soil consisting of very small particles
Fine particles hardly visible to the naked eye; usually located in a glass tube and scrutinized with good light
Silver 0 likes
Precious, grey-white, lustrous metal employed primarily in alloys; malleable and ductile, it also has the greatest thermal and electrical conductor properties of any material
Silver Brazing 0 likes
Brazing employing a silver alloy based filler; the silver alloys consist of different percentages of silver and other metals, such as copper, zinc and cadmium; brazing is commonly used in the tool industry to fasten carbide, ceramics, cermet, and similar hard metal tips to tools such as saw blades; sometimes known as silver soldering or hard soldering
Silver Leaf 1 like
Thin leaf composed of silver, employed mostly for producing letters on glass
Simple Beam 0 likes
A beam mounted on two supports; bending is not transmitted from the beam to the support
Simplified Practice Recommendation (SPR) 0 likes
U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230, URL: www.commerce.gov
Single Accommodation Sanitary Facility 0 likes
A room to accommodate one person, with a door that can be locked on the inside by the occupant and one or fewer of each sanitary fixture
Single Family Dwelling 0 likes
Accommodation for one family
Single Fire 0 likes
One firing to develop an unfired ceramic body and its glaze
Single Hung Window 0 likes
Window that has an upright sliding sash or window outlet
Single Lever Faucet1 like
single lever faucet
Faucets with one control and springs, cartridges, or balls that regulate water flow and temperature
Single Phase Motor1 like
single phase motor
Electric motor functioning on one-phase alternating current
Single Ply 0 likes
A roof that has one layer
Single Pole Switch 0 likes
An electrical switch with a positive contact and on-off positions
Single Roll 0 likes
American-made wallpaper comes in a roll of 36 square feet of paper; usually packaged as two or three single rolls
Single Spread 0 likes
See Spread
Single Stage Compressor 0 likes
See Compressor, Single Stage
Single Tee 0 likes
A prefabricated concrete plank with a central stiffening rib
Single Zone Air Handling System 0 likes
A system furnishing conditioned air to a portion or entire building that can be regulated as one area; a consistent amount of air is provided to the area
Single-Bevel Groove Weld 0 likes
See Groove Weld
Single-J Groove Weld 0 likes
See Groove Weld
Single-Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) 1 like
411 Waverley Oaks Rd, Suite 331B, Waltham, MA 02452, Tel: (781) 647-7026, URL: www.spri.org/
Single-Pole, Double Throw Switch, (SPDT) 1 like
An electric switch that has a blade with two contact points
Single-Pole, Single Throw Switch, (SPST) 1 like
An electric switch that has a blade and a single contact point
Single-U Groove Weld 0 likes
See Groove Weld
Single-Vee Groove Weld 1 like
See Groove Weld
Sinistral 0 likes
Left handed
Sink1 like
A basin with drainage and a piped water supply, employed for cleaning and removing fluids
Poorly drained, low-lying land
Sink, Darkroom 0 likes
See Darkroom Sink
Sinking Fund 0 likes
A money fund accumulated and enlarged with interest over time to end a debt, or make available reserves to replace deteriorating assets
Sintering 0 likes
Melting a powder to increase its strength while maintaining its porosity; employed in the production of light aggregates
Siphon1 like
A tube that transports liquids to a lower level using atmospheric pressure to facilitate the flow
Siren1 like
A warning device, often electrically operated, that creates a loud wailing sound
Sisal 0 likes
A strong durable white fiber obtained from fleshy leaves of the agave plant; employed in the production of rope and twine
Sister Joist 0 likes
Strengthening of a joist by nails or fastening along the current joist, another joist or reinforcing beam; used to reinforce joists that are sagging or damaged
Site 0 likes
Area where a structure or group of structures are located; a construction site
Site Demolition 0 likes
Tearing down a building or structure to prepare for new construction
Site Development 0 likes
Installing necessary improvements such as utilities and grading, to a site before a building or project is constructed on the site
Site Plan 0 likes
An architectural plan with a comprehensive engineering drawing of projected improvements to a site; generally illustrates a building footprint, parking, roads and walkways, drainage, sewer and water lines, landscaping, and lighting
Sitecast Concrete 0 likes
Concrete cast-in-place
Sitz Bath1 like
sitz bath
See Prerineal Bath
Sizing 0 likes
Molding substance to the right size
Coat of shellac, glue, or another substance on a surface that prepares it for paint or another finish
SJI 1 like
Steel Joist Institute
Product of the day

How to Fix Plumbing Noises In Your Home

plumbing fiberglass insulationTo diagnose loud plumbing, you must first determine whether the unwanted sounds occur on the system's inlet side - in other words, when water is turned on - or on the drain side. Noises on the inlet side have various causes: excessive water pressure, worn valve and faucet parts, poorly connected pumps or other appliances, incorrectly placed pipe fasteners, and plumbing runs with excessive tight bends or other restrictions. Noises on the drain side usually originate from poor location or, as with some inlet side noise, a layout with tight bends.


Hissing that occurs when a faucet is opened slightly generally signals excessive water pressure. Consult your local water company if you suspect this problem. They will tell you about the water pressure in your area and if necessary, can install a pressure reducing valve on the incoming water supply pipe.


Thudding, often accompanied by shuddering pipes when a faucet or appliance valve is turned off, is a condition called water hammer. The noise and vibration are caused by the reverberating wave of pressure in the water, which suddenly has no place to go. Sometimes opening a valve that discharges water quickly into a section of piping with a restriction, elbow, or tee fitting can produce the same condition. Water hammer can usually be fixed by installing fittings called air chambers or shock absorbers in the plumbing to which the problem valves or faucets are connected. These devices permit the shock wave produced by the halted flow of water to dissipate in the air, which unlike water, is compressible. Older plumbing systems may have short vertical sections of capped pipe behind walls on faucet runs for the same purpose; these can eventually fill with water, reducing or destroying their effectiveness. The solution is to drain the water system by turning off the main water supply valve and opening all faucets. Then open the main supply valve and close the faucets one at a time, starting with the faucet closest to the valve and ending with the one furthest away.

Chattering or Screeching

Intense chattering or screeching that occurs when a valve or faucet is turned on, and that usually disappears when the fitting is fully open, signals loose or defective internal parts. The solution is to replace the valve or faucet with a new one. Pumps and appliances such as washing machines and dishwashers can transfer motor noise to pipes if they are improperly connected. Link these items to plumbing with plastic or rubber hoses - never rigid pipe - to separate them.

Other Inlet Side Noises

Creaking, squeaking, scratching, snapping, and tapping are usually caused by the expansion or contraction of pipes, generally copper ones supplying hot water. The sounds occur as the pipes slide against loose fasteners or strike nearby house framing. You can often pinpoint the location of the problem if the pipes are exposed; just follow the sound when the pipes are making noise. Most likely, you will discover a loose pipe hanger or an area where pipes lie so close to floor joists or other framing pieces that they clatter against them. Attaching foam pipe insulation around the pipes at the point of contact should resolve the problem. Be sure straps and hangers are secure and provide sufficient support. Where possible, pipe fasteners should be connected to large structural elements such as foundation walls instead of framing; doing this reduces the transmission of vibrations from plumbing to surfaces that can amplify and transfer them. If attaching fasteners to framing is unavoidable, wrap pipes with insulation or other resilient material where they contact fasteners, and sandwich the ends of new fasteners between rubber washers when installing them. Correcting plumbing runs that suffer from flow-restricting tight or numerous bends is a last resort that should be performed only after consulting a skilled plumbing contractor. Unfortunately, this situation is common in older homes that may not have been built with indoor plumbing or that have been through several remodels, particularly by unprofessional contractors.

Drainpipe Noise

On the drain side of plumbing, the main goals are to eradicate surfaces that can be struck by falling or rushing water and to insulate pipes to contain unavoidable sounds. In new construction, bathtubs, shower stalls, toilets, and wall-mounted sinks and basins should be set on or against resilient under-layments to lower the transmission of sound through them. Water-saving toilets and faucets are less noisy than conventional models; install them instead of older types even if codes in your area still allow older fixtures. Drainpipes that do not run vertically to the basement or that branch into horizontal pipe runs supported at floor joists or other framing present especially troubling noise problems. These pipes are large enough to radiate substantial vibration; they also carry significant amounts of water, which makes the situation worse. In new construction, use cast-iron soil pipes (the large pipes that drain toilets) if you can afford them. Their immense size contains much of the noise made by water traversing them. Also, avoid routing drainpipes in walls shared with bedrooms and rooms where people gather. Walls containing drainpipes should be soundproofed as stated earlier, using double panels of sound-insulating fiberboard and wallboard. Pipes can be wrapped with special fiberglass insulation made for the purpose; these pipes have an impervious vinyl skin that sometimes containing lead. Results are not always acceptable.

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