Term Definition
FM 0 likes
Factory Mutual
FNMA 2 likes
Federal National Mortgage Association
Foam Concrete 0 likes
See Cellular Concrete
Foam Extinguisher1 like
foam extinguisher
Extinguisher releasing foam chemicals to put out fires
Foam Gasket 2 likes
Joint-sealing item composed of rubber or plastic foam strips
Foam Leak Detector 0 likes
Soap bubbles or special foaming liquids brushed over joints and connections to better find leaks
Foam Plaster Base 0 likes
Rigid foam backing serving as a plaster base
Foamed Concrete 0 likes
Concrete lightened and made cellular by including prepared foam or by generating gas in the soft mixture
Foamglass Insulation 0 likes
Thermal insulation in boards or blocks that have a low fire hazard rating
FOB 0 likes
Free On Board; no charge for delivery; FOB Jobsite indicates material costs include the cost of delivery to jobsite
Focal Depth 0 likes
Depth of the earthquake focus under ground level
Focus 1 like
Origin point of an earthquake; the point where the rupture occurs; synonymous with hypocenter
Fog Curing 1 like
Storage of concrete in a moist room where the desired high humidity is accomplished by the atomization of fresh water; applying atomized fresh water to concrete, mortar, stucco, or plaster.
Fogging 1 like
Foil1 like
Metal pressed into a thin sheet
Cusped element in Gothic tracery
Foil Back 1 like
See Foil Backed Gypsum Board
Foil Backed Gypsum Board 0 likes
Gypsum board with aluminum foil affixed to its back surface to retard vapor and insulate thermally; also called Foil Back
Folded Plate 0 likes
Shell structure produced by flat, thin slabs joining along their edges creating a three dimensional spatial structure
Folding Door1 like
Folding Door
Door with hinged leaves, frequently supplied with a ceiling or floor track
Folding Stair 0 likes
A hinged stair, attached to and hidden in the ceiling that is raised and lowered
Font 0 likes
Receptacle for baptismal or holy water in a church
Food Preparation 0 likes
Preparing food for cooking and consumption
Food Service Equipment 0 likes
Appliances, fixtures, and materials employed in the serving and cooking of large amounts of food
Foot 0 likes
Unit of length equivalent to 12 inches or 30.48 centimeters
Foot Grille 0 likes
Metal grating normally located in the floor near a building entrance to enable scraping of dirt, ice, and snow from shoes before entering the building
Foot-Candle 0 likes
Light furnished by one lumen of luminous flux, dispersed uniformly over one square foot
Foot-Pound 0 likes
Work done by a force of one pound moving the distance of one foot in the force’s direction; equivalent to about 0.04 joules
Footer, Footing 1 like
Continuous 8 inches or 10 inches thick concrete pad previously installed that reinforces the foundation wall or monopost; a rectangular concrete masonry section that is wider than the bottom of the foundation wall or pier that it supports
Footing Drain 0 likes
Drain surrounding the perimeter of a building, at the footings, to enable water to move away from the building
Drain at the footing of a retaining wall to reduce hydrostatic pressure that could cause the wall to collapse
Footing Excavation 1 like
Temporary removal of earth for footing installation
Footing Form 0 likes
A wood or steel structure, positioned around the footing that keeps the concrete in the desired shape and size; also called Footing Formwork
Footing Formwork 0 likes
See Footing Form
Footing Reinforcing 0 likes
Positioning of metal or steel bars in a freshly poured or placed concrete footing for reinforcement
Footprint 1 like
Outline of a building to determine compliance with planning and zoning laws; employed in site planning
Foots 1 like
Dregs; settlings in vegetable oils
Force 0 likes
Energy applied on matter causing motion; size, direction and point of application are all relevant when defining a force
Force Account 0 likes
Construction work on a material and time basis
Force Majeure 0 likes
An unexpected overwhelming event
Force-Feed Oiling 1 like
Lubrication system which uses a pump to force oil to surfaces of parts in motion
Forced Air 0 likes
Air transferred from a furnace or air conditioner by a fan
Forced Air Furnace 1 like
A device with a heat exchanger and ventilating fan providing hot air for space heating
Forced Air Heating 0 likes
Regular form of heating with natural gas, propane, oil or electricity as a fuel; Air is heated in the furnace and distributed via metal ducts to different areas of the building
Forced Convection 0 likes
Motion of fluid by mechanical force such as pumps or fans
Forced Draft 0 likes
Combustion air forced through the boiler up the stack by a blower in the burner section in a boiler
Forced Drying 0 likes
Hastening drying by using above ambient temperature via an oven, infrared lamp, or another source of heat
Foreclosure 0 likes
A legal procedure for selling a mortgaged property in debt to retrieve the debt
Foreman 0 likes
An experienced employee who usually supervises a crew
Forensic Architecture 0 likes
Applying of architecture, construction facts, and scientific methods to construction and legal challenges
Forensic Engineering 0 likes
Applying engineering, construction facts and scientific methods to construction and legal challenges
Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) 1 like
U.S. Forest Service, Mailstop: 1111, 1400 Independence Ave., SW, Washington, D.C. 20250, Tel: (800) 832-13555, URL: www.fs.fed.us/
Forge 0 likes
Furnace or hearth for refining or melting metal; furnace where metal is heated then wrought
Forged 1 like
Produced by hammering and heating
Forged Eyebolt1 like
forged eyebolt
A heavy metal bolt containing an eye at its end that may be employed as a fastening device
Forged Steel 0 likes
Wrought steel
Fork Lift 0 likes
A vehicle with a horizontal fork in front to lift and transfer loads; a fork lift truck
Form 0 likes
Temporary structure that contains concrete during placing and initial hardening
Form Deck 0 likes
Thin, corrugated steel decking acting as permanent formwork for a reinforced concrete deck
Form Fabric 1 like
Welded-wire fabric employed to strengthen concrete while it sets and gains enough strength to support itself
Form Lacquer 1 like
Thin lacquer employed to coat concrete forms, preventing concrete from sticking to the forms
Form Oil 0 likes
Oil spread on the interior surface of formwork, facilitating easy release from the concrete when forms are removed
Form Release 0 likes
Substance applied to concrete forms, facilitating stripping after pouring
Form Tie 0 likes
A steel rod with fasteners on its ends, employed to keep the formwork for a concrete wall together
Form-Fit Area 0 likes
See Free Form
Form, Slab 0 likes
See Slab Form
Formica 0 likes
Brand name and trademark for laminated plastic products employed for surface finish on millwork or cabinets
Formica Partition 1 like
A dividing wall finished with an external layer of Formica
Forming 1 like
Installation of wooden forms to accept reinforcing steel and concrete
Molding or shaping of ceramic ware
Formwork 0 likes
See Form
Fossil Fuel 0 likes
A natural fuel such as coal, gas, or petroleum produced from the remains of living organisms
Fossil Resin 1 like
Natural or earth type resins that derive properties through aging in the ground
Foundation 0 likes
The supporting part of a structure under the first floor construction including the footings; the part of a building that transfers structural loads from the building into the earth
Foundation Backfill 0 likes
Earthen material moved during excavation and replaced around the built foundation
Foundation Block 0 likes
Masonry block employed for foundation work, generally thicker than standard block
Foundation Investigation 0 likes
See Geotechnical Investigation
Foundation Mat 0 likes
A grid of reinforcement steel intended for concrete foundations
Foundation Reinforcing 1 like
Positioning of metal or steel bars in a freshly poured or placed concrete foundation for reinforcement
Foundation Resin 0 likes
Piping surrounding the base of a building that collects water and conveys it to a drainage system
Foundation Soil 1 like
See Subgrade
Foundation Ties 0 likes
Metal wires securing the foundation wall panels and rebar in position during the concrete pour
Foundation Vent1 like
foundation vent
Screened opening under the floor line, creating natural ventilation to foundation crawl spaces
Foundation Wall 0 likes
The part of a load-bearing wall below the level of the adjacent grade or under the first tier of floor beams or joists, which transfers the superimposed load to the footing and earth
Foundation Waterproofing 0 likes
Employed for below-grade exterior concrete and masonry wall damp-proofing to keep out moisture and prevent corrosion; black tar appearance
Foundry 0 likes
Workshop for casting metals
Fountain1 like
Water jets spouting for decorative purposes, or for drinking
Natural water spring
Fountain, Wash1 like
wash fountain
See Wash Fountain
Four Dimensional 0 likes
Four dimensions consisting of elements requiring four coordinates to determine them; for example, the space-time continuum
Four Pole Motor 0 likes
1800 rpm, 60 Hz electric synchronous speed motor
Fourth Dimension 0 likes
Time, height, width, and depth
Foyer 0 likes
A lobby; entrance hallway
FPL 0 likes
Forest Products Laboratory
Fraction 0 likes
A numerical quantity that is not a whole number, as in 3/4 or 2/3; a number expressed as one number divided by another; the upper number is the numerator and the lower number is the denominator
Part of a mixture separated by distillation
Fracture 0 likes
A break, normally resulting in actual separation of the material; in structures, result of tension failure; see Crack
Frame 0 likes
A confining border like a picture frame
Rough structure of a building, such as interior and exterior walls, floor, roof, and ceilings
To combine or build large assemblies from smaller parts
A structural system made of relatively long, prismatic parts secured together
Surrounding woodwork, such as around windows or doors
Frame High 0 likes
To place brickwork to the top of a door or window frame; the lintel is then positioned across the opening and rests on the brickwork on either side of the frame
Frame Inspection 0 likes
Inspecting a building’s structural integrity and its compliance to local municipal codes
Frame, Balloon 3 likes
See Balloon Frame
Frame, Braced 1 like
See Braced Frame
Frame, Door3 likes
See Door Frame
Frame, Ductile Moment Resisting Space 0 likes
See Ductile Moment Resisting Space Frame
Frame, Moment Resisting 2 likes
See Moment Resisting Frame
Frame, Platform2 likes
platform frame
See Platform Frame
Framed Connection 0 likes
Connection capable of resisting moments
A shear connection between steel members constructed with steel angles or plates connecting to the web of the beam or girder
Framer 0 likes
The carpenter contractor who installs the lumber and installs the frame, flooring system, interior walls, backing, trusses, rafters, decking, beams, stairs, soffits and all work pertaining to the wood structure of the building; the framer constructs the building according to the blueprints and complies with local building codes and regulations
Framing 1 like
Lumber employed for the structural components of a building, such as joists, rafters, and studs; rough wooden skeleton of a building, including interior and exterior walls, floor, roof, and ceilings
Framing Lumber 0 likes
Wood components of framing systems
Framing Member 0 likes
The stud, plate, joist, or furring part to which the external and internal surfacing materials attach; generally consists of wood or metal
Framing, Ceiling 0 likes
See Ceiling Framing
Framing, Door1 like
See Door Framing
Framing, Roof 0 likes
See Roof Framing
Framing, Timber 0 likes
See Timber Framing
Framing, Wall 0 likes
See Wall Framing
Franchise Tax Board 0 likes
A department of the California state government that deals with taxes from individuals and businesses
Fraud 1 like
An erroneous statement of fact with an intention to deceive
Free and Clear 0 likes
Real property with no liens or encumbrances
Free Body Diagram 0 likes
A diagram where an element of the structure is isolated from its surroundings and the effect of its surroundings is displayed only as forces; see Vector
Free Form 0 likes
Non-rectangular floor area in a department store or salon, not limited by walls; sometimes called Form-Fit Area
Free Water 0 likes
All water contained by gypsum board, concrete, mortar, or plaster more than that which is held as water of crystallization
Freeboard 0 likes
Distance between pool water surface and deck level
Freeform 0 likes
Freely adapted pool shape
Freehand Floating 0 likes
Applying wall mortar without guide screeds; employed by specialists when setting glass mosaic murals
Freeway 0 likes
See Expressway
Freeze-Up 1 like
Ice formation in the refrigerant control device which can obstruct the flow of refrigerant into the evaporator
Frost formation on an evaporator which may obstruct the airflow through the evaporator
See Frozen
Freezer1 like
A refrigerated cabinet or room for preserving food at very low temperatures.
Freezer Alarm1 like
freezer alarm
A buzzer in freezers that activates an alarm when the freezer temperature become unsafe
Freezer Burn 0 likes
Occurs when food has not been properly wrapped, has frozen and is now hard, dry, and discolored
Freezing 0 likes
Change of state from a liquid to a solid
Freezing Point 1 like
Temperature at which a liquid solidifies when heat is removed; Water’s freezing temperature is 32° F (O° C) at atmospheric pressure
Freight Elevator 0 likes
A hoisting device lifting or lowering cargo
Freight-In 0 likes
Merchandising account recording the transportation costs on purchases made by the buyer
Freize Carpet 0 likes
A rough, nubby carpet with tightly twisted yarns; carpet with pile of uncut loops or a mixture of cut and uncut loops
Freize Yarn 0 likes
A closely twisted yarn that provides a rough, nubby appearance to the pile; used in plain colors, also creates designs against plain grounds to yield an engraved appearance
French Curve1 like
french curve
A transparent plastic drafter’s implement employed for drawing curves
French Door1 like
french door
A door with rectangular glass panes extending to its full length
French Drain 0 likes
A trench filled with gravel intended to transfer intercepted underground drainage
French Polishing 0 likes
High-grade wood finish made by applying shellac or French varnish with a cloth pad, then linseed oil as a lubricant to stop the pad from adhering
French Process Zinc Oxide 0 likes
Zinc oxide pigment produced from metallic zinc; sometimes called indirect process; see American Process Zinc Oxide
French Window 0 likes
A pair of casement windows reaching the floor
Freon1 like
Trade name for a family of synthetic chemical refrigerants
Freon-12 0 likes
Frequency 0 likes
Rate of occurrence
The rate of recurrence of a oscillation, vibration, or cycle; the number of repetitions in a given time, such as per second; one vibration per second is one hertz
Frequency Meter 0 likes
A device measuring vibrations in cycles per second
Fresco 0 likes
Painting on fresh plaster using water-based pigments
Fresh Water 0 likes
Water with a specific conductivity less than a solution containing 6,000 parts per million of sodium chloride
Fret 0 likes
An ornamental pattern made with interlaced designs
Fret Saw1 like
fret saw
A fine-toothed saw with its narrow blade under tension, generally utilized for sawing curves
Fretwork 0 likes
Decorative openwork designs in woodwork as made by a fretsaw
Any ornamental openwork or work in relief in masonry
Friable Asbestos 0 likes
Materials that have more than one percent asbestos, and can be crumbled, pulverized, or turned into powder by hand pressure
Friction 0 likes
When materials rub against each other; tangential surface resistance between two bodies in contact
Friction Catch 0 likes
When engaged in a strike, any catch that is held in the engaged position by friction
Friction Connection 0 likes
Two or more structural parts clamped together by strong bolts with enough force that the loads on the members are transferred between them by friction along their mating surfaces
Friction Hinge1 like
friction hinge
A hinge that holds a door at any desired angle of opening by friction control as in the hinge’s knuckle
Friction Loss 0 likes
Loss in efficiency as a result of friction
Friction Pile 0 likes
A pile calculated to carry its entire load by skin friction, ignoring any contribution of direct bearing on its point
Frictional Soil 0 likes
A soil, such as sand, which is non-cohesive
Frieze 0 likes
Horizontal member connecting the top of the siding with the cornice’s soffit in house construction
Frigidarium 0 likes
Room with the cold bath in Roman baths
Fringe Benefits 0 likes
Benefits paid for by an employer in addition to basic wages; includes vacations, sick time, health care, retirement, and disability insurance
Frit 0 likes
The totally or partly fused materials glass is made from
Ground-up glass employed as a base for glaze or enamel
Fritted Glass 0 likes
Float glass with crushed glass melted on its surface, used for the screening out glare, curbing solar gain, and supplying various levels of opacity and color
Fritted Glaze 0 likes
Glaze where part or all of the fluxing constituents are already fused
Froe1 like
A cleaving tool that splits blocks of wood into shingles or barrel staves
Frog 1 like
A loop on a belt to hold an implement
A mechanical device enabling train wheels on a track to cross over an intersecting track
See Panel
Front Door Lock 0 likes
A lock installed in a front door
Front End Loader 0 likes
A tractor or bulldozer with a bucket that operates from the front
Front End Loading 0 likes
Fraudulent practice where a contractor’s distorts the schedule of values so that work done early in the contract has greater values than later work getting paid before earning the pay; also called Unbalancing the Schedule of Values
Front Money 0 likes
Cash needed to pay the property development costs before financing can be organized
Front Yard 0 likes
Area between a structure and its front property line
Frost 0 likes
A thin covering of ice on a cold surface
Soil that is frozen
Frost Control Semiautomatic 1 like
See Semiautomatic Frost Control
Frost Control, Automatic 0 likes
See Automatic Frost Control
Frost Control, Manual 0 likes
See Manual Frost Control
Frost Free Refrigerator1 like
frost free refrigerator
Refrigerated cabinet that functions with an automatic defrost during every cycle
Frost Lid 0 likes
Round metal lid mounted on a water meter pit
Frost Line 0 likes
The depth of frost penetration in soil; varies in different parts of the country; footings should be placed under it to prevent movement
Frost Proof Tile 0 likes
Tile produced for locations where freezing and thawing occur
Frosting Type Evaporator 0 likes
Refrigerating system maintaining the evaporator at frosting temperatures during all cycle phases
Frothing 0 likes
Frozen 0 likes
The solid state of water
Machine parts seized due to insufficient lubrication; also called Freeze-Up
Frozen Food Case1 like
frozen food case
A storage unit freezing or preserving foods at freezing temperatures
FRP 0 likes
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic
Fryer, Kitchen 0 likes
See Kitchen Fryer
FS 1 like
Federal Specifications
FTI 0 likes
Facing Tile Institute
Fuel 0 likes
A substance burned to provide release energy in the form of heat
Fuel Oil 0 likes
Oil employed for fuel in furnaces and engines
Kerosene or any hydrocarbon oil having a flash point no less than 100° F (38° C)
Fugitive Colors 0 likes
Non-permanent colors and subject to fading
Fulcrum 0 likes
Fixed point of support where a lever pivots
Full Fillet Weld 1 like
A fillet weld whose size is equivalent to the thickness of the thinner part
Full Header 0 likes
A brick course consisting entirely of headers
Full Load Torque 0 likes
The maximum torque delivered with no overheating in an electric motor
Full Mopping 0 likes
Mopping layer entirely coating the surface with hot bitumen in roofing
Full-Cell Process 0 likes
A process for curing wood with preservatives or chemicals; a vacuum removes air from the wood before preservative is added
Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement 0 likes
The term Full-Depth, registered by The Asphalt Institute at the U. S. Patent Office, certifies that the pavement has asphalt mixtures for all courses above the subgrade or improved subgrade; laid directly on the prepared subgrade
Fullers Earth 0 likes
Clay mineral lacking plasticity and employed as an adsorbent and filter
Fully Adhered 0 likes
Roof membrane fully mopped to the substrate
Fume Hood1 like
fume hood
A ventilated laboratory enclosure for removing fumes
Functional 0 likes
Practical; utilitarian
Functional Obsolescence 0 likes
Loss of value of real property caused by outdated features or poor design
Fungi 0 likes
See Fungus
Fungi Resistance 0 likes
The ability of material to endure fungal growth and their metabolic products under normal conditions
Fungicide1 like
A substance that kills fungi or constrains their growth
Fungus (pl. Fungi) 0 likes
Saprophytic and parasitic lower plants without chlorophyll including molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts
Funnel1 like
A utensil with a tube at the smaller end of a hollow cone; employed for transferring liquids into a container with a small opening
Funny Papers 0 likes
A derogatory phrase employed onsite about construction drawings and specifications
Furan Grout 0 likes
Two-part grout system of furan resin hardener that fills joints between quarry tile and pavers; also called Furan Resin Grout
Furan Mortar 1 like
A two-part mortar system of furan resin and hardener employed for bonding tile to back-up material; also called Furan Resin Mortar
Furan Resin 0 likes
See Furan Plastics
Furan Resin Grout 0 likes
See Furan Grout
Furan Resin Mortar 0 likes
See Furan Mortar
Furnace1 like
Unit pulling in cool air from a space, passing the air through a heating combustion or electric chamber, then returning it to the original space; heat system distributing air
Furnace, Central Warm Air 1 like
Device that distributes heated air through ducts to distant or adjacent areas of the building
Furnish 0 likes
To provide what is necessary
Raw materials to make paper pulp
To provide furniture
Furnishings 0 likes
Items, especially furniture inside a building to enhance comfort or usefulness
Furred Ceiling 0 likes
A ceiling with spacer elements, generally furring channels, round rods, or wood strips interjected between it and the above supporting structure
Furring 0 likes
Wood or metal strips that build out a surface like a studded wall
Narrow strips secured to walls and ceilings, forming a straight surface on which the lath or other finish is laid
Furring Channels 0 likes
3/4 inch cold or hot rolled steel channels employed in plaster base construction
Furring Strips 0 likes
Strips of wood employed to shim out and provide a level fastening surface for a wall or ceiling
Furring, Ceiling 0 likes
See Ceiling Furring
Furring, Channel 0 likes
See Channel Furring
Furring, Metal 0 likes
See Metal Furring
Furring, Wood 0 likes
See Wood Furring
Furrowing 0 likes
Striking a V-shaped trough in a bed of mortar
Fuse1 like
A device in older homes that prevent overloads in electrical lines and protects against fire; see also Circuit Breakers
Fused Reducer1 like
fused reducer
A pipe coupling larger at one end and attached to a length of pipe by welding
Fusel Oil 2 likes
Oily liquid created when ethyl alcohol is produced by grain fermentation; only produced in small quantities
Fusible Link 0 likes
A safety device with a metal that has a low melting point inserted into a machine, boiler, or linkage that shuts off the appliance when it melts
Fusible Plug1 like
fusible plug
Plug or fitting made with a metal that melts at low temperatures; employed as a safety device to release pressure
Fusible Switch1 like
fusible switch
An electric switch with a fusible link in the wiring for an electric circuit to break the circuit by melting if there is an overload
Fusion 0 likes
Liquid or plastic state of a material due to heat
Melting to produce a union; normally the result of two or more materials interacting in welding
Fuzzing 2 likes
Temporary issue with new carpet with an irregular fuzzy appearance due to slack yarn twist, fibers snagging, or yarn breaking; can be fixed by spot shearing
Product of the day

How to Fix Plumbing Noises In Your Home

plumbing fiberglass insulationTo diagnose loud plumbing, you must first determine whether the unwanted sounds occur on the system's inlet side - in other words, when water is turned on - or on the drain side. Noises on the inlet side have various causes: excessive water pressure, worn valve and faucet parts, poorly connected pumps or other appliances, incorrectly placed pipe fasteners, and plumbing runs with excessive tight bends or other restrictions. Noises on the drain side usually originate from poor location or, as with some inlet side noise, a layout with tight bends.


Hissing that occurs when a faucet is opened slightly generally signals excessive water pressure. Consult your local water company if you suspect this problem. They will tell you about the water pressure in your area and if necessary, can install a pressure reducing valve on the incoming water supply pipe.


Thudding, often accompanied by shuddering pipes when a faucet or appliance valve is turned off, is a condition called water hammer. The noise and vibration are caused by the reverberating wave of pressure in the water, which suddenly has no place to go. Sometimes opening a valve that discharges water quickly into a section of piping with a restriction, elbow, or tee fitting can produce the same condition. Water hammer can usually be fixed by installing fittings called air chambers or shock absorbers in the plumbing to which the problem valves or faucets are connected. These devices permit the shock wave produced by the halted flow of water to dissipate in the air, which unlike water, is compressible. Older plumbing systems may have short vertical sections of capped pipe behind walls on faucet runs for the same purpose; these can eventually fill with water, reducing or destroying their effectiveness. The solution is to drain the water system by turning off the main water supply valve and opening all faucets. Then open the main supply valve and close the faucets one at a time, starting with the faucet closest to the valve and ending with the one furthest away.

Chattering or Screeching

Intense chattering or screeching that occurs when a valve or faucet is turned on, and that usually disappears when the fitting is fully open, signals loose or defective internal parts. The solution is to replace the valve or faucet with a new one. Pumps and appliances such as washing machines and dishwashers can transfer motor noise to pipes if they are improperly connected. Link these items to plumbing with plastic or rubber hoses - never rigid pipe - to separate them.

Other Inlet Side Noises

Creaking, squeaking, scratching, snapping, and tapping are usually caused by the expansion or contraction of pipes, generally copper ones supplying hot water. The sounds occur as the pipes slide against loose fasteners or strike nearby house framing. You can often pinpoint the location of the problem if the pipes are exposed; just follow the sound when the pipes are making noise. Most likely, you will discover a loose pipe hanger or an area where pipes lie so close to floor joists or other framing pieces that they clatter against them. Attaching foam pipe insulation around the pipes at the point of contact should resolve the problem. Be sure straps and hangers are secure and provide sufficient support. Where possible, pipe fasteners should be connected to large structural elements such as foundation walls instead of framing; doing this reduces the transmission of vibrations from plumbing to surfaces that can amplify and transfer them. If attaching fasteners to framing is unavoidable, wrap pipes with insulation or other resilient material where they contact fasteners, and sandwich the ends of new fasteners between rubber washers when installing them. Correcting plumbing runs that suffer from flow-restricting tight or numerous bends is a last resort that should be performed only after consulting a skilled plumbing contractor. Unfortunately, this situation is common in older homes that may not have been built with indoor plumbing or that have been through several remodels, particularly by unprofessional contractors.

Drainpipe Noise

On the drain side of plumbing, the main goals are to eradicate surfaces that can be struck by falling or rushing water and to insulate pipes to contain unavoidable sounds. In new construction, bathtubs, shower stalls, toilets, and wall-mounted sinks and basins should be set on or against resilient under-layments to lower the transmission of sound through them. Water-saving toilets and faucets are less noisy than conventional models; install them instead of older types even if codes in your area still allow older fixtures. Drainpipes that do not run vertically to the basement or that branch into horizontal pipe runs supported at floor joists or other framing present especially troubling noise problems. These pipes are large enough to radiate substantial vibration; they also carry significant amounts of water, which makes the situation worse. In new construction, use cast-iron soil pipes (the large pipes that drain toilets) if you can afford them. Their immense size contains much of the noise made by water traversing them. Also, avoid routing drainpipes in walls shared with bedrooms and rooms where people gather. Walls containing drainpipes should be soundproofed as stated earlier, using double panels of sound-insulating fiberboard and wallboard. Pipes can be wrapped with special fiberglass insulation made for the purpose; these pipes have an impervious vinyl skin that sometimes containing lead. Results are not always acceptable.

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