Term Definition
Cab, Elevator 0 likes
Elevator enclosure that carries passengers
Cabana 0 likes
A shelter close to a swimming pool or beach
Cabin 1 like
A small one story dwelling of simple construction
A compartment on a ship or airplane
Cabinet3 likes
Case, box, or furniture with drawers or shelves and doors mainly employed for storage
An electrical switch enclosure for surface or flush mounting with a frame, mat or trim where swinging doors are hung; see Panelboard or Switchboard
Cabinet Drawer Guide 0 likes
A wood strip that guides the drawer as it slides in and out of its opening
Cabinet Drawer Kicker 1 like
Wood cabinet component positioned immediately above and usually at the center of a drawer to stop tilting when pulled out
Cabinet Finish 3 likes
Protective coatings to furnish protection and decoration for exposed portions of wood cabinets
Cabinet Hardware3 likes
cabinet hardware
Metal and plastic fasteners and connectors that enable doors, drawers, and shelves in cabinets to be functional
Cabinet Heater2 likes
A heating element in a metal housing with openings for airflow generally with a fan that regulates air flow
Cabinet Knob2 likes
cabinet knob
A handle, pull, or rounded protrusion that opens a cabinet door or drawer
Cabinet Wall 0 likes
The wall to which cabinets are secured or installed
Cabinet, Base3 likes
base cabinet
Floor-mounted cabinet most often with a mounted counter, sink or appliance
Cabinet, Extinguisher 0 likes
A cupboard with doors that houses a fire extinguisher
Cabinet, Kitchen1 like
kitchen cabinet
Furniture with drawers or shelves and doors mainly used for storage, mounted on walls or floors in a kitchen
Cabinet, Laboratory2 likes
cabinet laboratory
Furniture with drawers or shelves and doors, mainly used for storage in an area for scientific studies and testing facilities
Cabinet, Monitor 1 like
Cabinet with louvered panel doors to permit ventilation and light
Cabinet, Transparent Finish 2 likes
Protective clear or tinted coating to protect and decorate exposed parts of wood cabinets that allow wood grain to be visible through the coating
Cable2 likes
A thin, flexible line that carries only tensile forces
A bundle of two or more electrical conductors
Cable Bus 0 likes
Assembly of insulated cables
Cable Camera2 likes
cable camera
Camera that is regulated and activated with coaxial cable
Cable Connector2 likes
cable connector
A device that connects lengths of cable into one longer cable
Cable Coupler2 likes
cable coupler
A device that connects two lengths of cable into one longer cable
Cable Fitting 0 likes
Creates a junction or connects cable lines
Cable Lug 0 likes
Connector for securing the ends of cable to a terminal
Cable Man-Hole 0 likes
A vertical access shaft from the surface to the underground to an area for the repair or installation of cable wires
Cable Receptacle3 likes
cable receptacle
Interrupting outlet box mounted in an electric supply circuit for connecting electric cables
Cable Roof 1 like
Circular structure in which internal stresses of the components are subjected mainly to tensile stresses
Cable Support 0 likes
A structure which secures cable lines in position or safely overhead
Cable Tap Box 2 likes
Box where public cable service supply lines connect with a branch for a building or structure
Cable Tray2 likes
cable tray
Open track to support insulated cables
Cable TV 0 likes
System of distributing television signals to subscribers with subterranean cables or overhead wires, and not aerially
Cable, Audio1 like
cable, audio
A cable that holds and transmits audio signals
Cable, BX1 like
cable, BX
Two or more insulated indoor wires protected by a wound, galvanized steel strip cover; the metal winding produces a flexible tube providing protection similar to rigid conduit
Cable, Coaxial1 like
coaxial cable
A cable comprised of two concentric conductors separated by an insulator; used to transfer telephone, television and computer signals
Cable, Communication1 like
cable, communication
A cable that transmits telephone, television, and computer signals
Cable, Computer1 like
Cable, computer
Coaxial cable that transmits computer signals
Cable, Copper2 likes
cable, copper
Insulated, sheathed copper wires conducting power from a source to an electric device
Cable, Fire Alarm 0 likes
An electrical system cable that transfers electric current to a warning horn or bell for use when there is fire or catastrophic circumstance
Cable, Guy 1 like
A wire that secures a tall exterior mast, antenna, or other structure
Cable, Thermostat1 like
Thermostat cable
An electrical system cable that drives an automatic device to control the temperature in a room or area
CABO 1 like
Council of American Building Officials
Cabriole Leg 1 like
A curved furniture leg round and swollen at the top and tapered down to an ornamental foot
CAD 1 like
Computer Aided Design
CADD 0 likes
Computer Aided Design and Drafting
Cadmium 0 likes
A bluish white flexible toxic metallic element employed in protective plating and bearing metals
Cadmium Lithopone 1 like
Series of yellows and reds permanent to light and alkali resistant
Cadmium Red 0 likes
Non-fading red pigment constructed from cadmium and selenium metal; heat and alkali resistant
Cadmium Yellow 1 like
Pigment fast to alkalis but not acids
Café 0 likes
A small coffee shop or very basic restaurant
Cafeteria 0 likes
Restaurant where customers select their food, put it on a tray, and pay before eating
Cage Ladder1 like
cage ladder
Wall-mounted ladder that is designed to stop the climber from falling
Caging2 likes
Metal furring employed to encompass pipes, columns and beams hidden by gypsum board
Caisson Disease 1 like
Decompression sickness; also called The Bends, Air Embolism, or Aerembolism
Caking 0 likes
Hardened settling of pigment from paint
Cal/OSHA 0 likes
California Occupational Safety and Health Act
Calcareous 1 like
Contains calcium or calcium carbonate; chalky
Calcification 0 likes
Buildup of calcium carbonate on swimming pool walls and equipment; due to precipitation of calcium from hard water
Calcimine 0 likes
A white or tinted wash of glue, whiting or zinc white and water used mainly on plastered surfaces; a tempera
Calcine 0 likes
Change structure or physical state by heating
Reduce water content by heating and thereby changing the chemical and physical properties of a substance
Reduce water from crystallization in gypsum by applying heat
Ceramic mineral or mixture fired to less than fusion employed as part of a ceramic arrangement
Calcined 0 likes
Heated to high temperature without air
Calcined Board 0 likes
Gypsum board exposed to excessive heat
Calcined Gypsum 1 like
Gypsum partly dehydrated by heat
Calcium Aluminate Cement 0 likes
Product produced by pulverizing clinker made of hydraulic calcium aluminates due to fusing or sintering a mixture of aluminous and calcareous substances
Calcium Carbonate1 like
calcium carbonate
Earth substance from chalk or dolomite deposits; used as an extender pigment; also called Whiting
Calcium Driers 0 likes
Employed with other metal driers to convert paint to hard films
Calcium Gypsum2 likes
calcium gypsum
A dry powder produced from calcination of gypsum; cementitious base for production of most gypsum plasters; also called Plaster of Paris or Stucco
Calcium Hypchlorite 0 likes
Used as a bacteriacide in swimming pools; available in white granular or tablets and discharges 70% of its weight as available chlorine
Calcium Insulation 0 likes
Insulation composed of hydrated calcium silicate that can withstand 1200° Fahrenheit and by moisture
Calcium Silicate 0 likes
A sand and lime solution
Calcium Sulphate 0 likes
A drying agent in liquid line driers
Calculus 0 likes
Using algebra to calculate varying quantities
Calendar Day 0 likes
Every day on the calendar
Calendered Papers 0 likes
Wallpapers with hard finish
Caliber 1 like
Internal diameter of a tube
Character and capacity of an organization
Calibrate 0 likes
To verify the graduations of a device and adjust them
Calidarium 0 likes
In Roman baths, the room that has the warm bath; also called Thermae
California Redwood Association (CRA) 0 likes
405 Enfrente Drive #200, Novato, California 94949 Tel: (415) 382-0662, http://www.calredwood.org/
Caliper1 like
A measuring instrument with two legs like a divider to measure thicknesses, diameters, and distances between surfaces; with in-turned points to measure convex surfaces and out-turned points for gauging internal dimensions
Measured thickness of gypsum board
Diameter of a tree trunk
Call System 1 like
Communicating device that connect an area with another
Calorie 0 likes
Small calorie or gram calorie used in medical science; amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius
Large calorie or great calorie; used by engineering science; the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius
Calorimeter 0 likes
Device that measures quantities of heat or gauges specified heats
Cam 0 likes
Projection on a rotating part in machinery that conveys reciprocal or variable motion to the part with which it is in contact
Camber 1 like
A deflection built into a beam or structural element to beautify, eliminate or offset the deflection of the beam under the effects of loads, shrinkage, and creep
Slight rise in the center of a flat arch
Camber Rod 0 likes
A tension rod mounted under a trussed beam
Came 1 like
Thin grooved lead rod employed in stained glass windows
Camera Cable1 like
camera cable
Device that transmits and records visual images
Campanile 2 likes
A free-standing bell tower
Campus 1 like
The grounds and buildings of a university, college, or school
Candela 1 like
An international unit of luminous intensity; also called a Candle
Candelilla Wax 1 like
Wax derived from small shrub grown in Texas and Mexico; softer than Carnuba wax
Candle1 like
See Candela
Candlepower 1 like
The unit of luminous intensity of a light source, expressed in Candelas
Cane Bolt3 likes
cane bolt
An L-shaped rod installed on a swinging or sliding door that drops into a pipe sleeve below the floor surface to stabilize the door
Cannibalization 0 likes
Process of running an income property by borrowing parts, fixtures, and equipment from vacant spaces
Cannular 0 likes
Canopy1 like
An overhanging shelter; a marquee
Cant Strip 1 like
A strip of treated wood or fiber with a sloping face employed to improve the transition from a horizontal to a vertical surface at the edge of a flat roof; prevents the roofing material from suddenly stopping at the parapet wall and also aids in averting leakage there
A triangular shaped wood strip employed under shingles at gable ends or under the edges of roofing on flat decks
Cantilever 1 like
An overhang of around 2 feet where a floor extends beyond a foundation wall
Cantilever Wall 0 likes
A retaining wall where the wall and footing oppose earth pressure by cantilever effect
Cantilevered Beam 1 like
A beam that is supported at one end
Cantilevered Void 0 likes
Trapezoid shaped foundation void material with vertical sides 6 inches by 4 inches used in exceptionally expansive soils conditions
Cap 0 likes
Upper component of a column, door cornice, molding, or fireplace
Cap Base 1 like
Wood strip mounted to the base of a wall to protect the wall surface and complete the intersection of the wall and baseboard
Cap Block 0 likes
Solid flat slab generally 2-1/4 inches thick employed as capping units for parapet and garden walls; also used as a Paving Unit
Cap Flashing 0 likes
The part of the flashing connected to a vertical surface to stop water passing behind the base flashing
Cap Rate 0 likes
See Capitalization Rate
Cap Sheet 1 like
The uppermost sheet of roofing in a built up roof
Cap, Black Iron 1 like
A steel fitting with female threads that seals the end of a pipe
Cap, Pile 2 likes
Structural part secured and positioned on the top of a thin timber, concrete, steel pile; employed to transfer loads into a pile or piles, interconnecting them
Cap, Post 0 likes
A fitting that attaches the end of a wooden post to a joist or girder connected to the post
Cap, Welded 0 likes
A fitting secured by welding to seal the end of a pipe
Capacitance 0 likes
Property of a nonconductor, condenser, or capacitor that stores electrical energy in an electrostatic field; measured by the farad
Property of an electric circuit which tends to oppose a change in voltage
Capacitance Sensor1 like
capacitance sensor
A sensor that displays a device’s ability to hold or store electrical energy
Capacitive Reactance 0 likes
Resistance to an alternating current due to capacitance in ohms
Capacitor1 like
A device that provides capacitance in an electric circuit
Electrical storage device used in starting and running circuits for electric motors
Capacitor Motor1 like
capacitor motor
Single-phase induction motor with an auxiliary starting winding in series with a capacitor to improve starting function
Capacitor-Start Motor2 likes
capacitor-start motor
Motor with a capacitor in the starting circuit
Capacity 0 likes
The ability to contain or receive
Maximum amount that can be accommodated
Lender’s requirements that indicate borrower’s ability to continue with a project and weather a moderate loss
Refrigeration rating system; measured in Btu per hour or watts
Capillarity 0 likes
Description of the elevation or lowering of a liquid when it is in contact with a solid in a capillary tube
Capillary1 like
A tube with a little bore
Capillary Attraction 0 likes
Adhesion force between a solid and a liquid in capillarity
How adhesion between the molten filler metal and the base metals, along with surface tension of the molten filler metal, spreads the filler metal between the well fitted surfaces of the joint in brazing
Capillary Break 0 likes
Slot or groove that produces an opening too big to be bridged by a drop of water, removing water transfer by capillary action
Capillary Movement 0 likes
Movement of underground water due to capillary attraction
Capillary Space 0 likes
Space unoccupied by anhydrous cement or cement gel in cement paste; air bubbles are not part of the cement paste
Capillary Tube2 likes
Capillary tube
See Capillary and Choke Tube
Capillary Water 0 likes
Underground water supported above the water table by capillary attraction
Capital 0 likes
The principal portion of a loan; the original quantity that is borrowed; money or other assets that a company uses to start or operate a business
Head or cornice of a pillar or column; also called Column Cap
Capital and Interest 0 likes
The most conventional form of repayment home loan where the borrower repays an amount each month to cover the amount (capital or principal) borrowed, and the interest charge on the capital
Capital Gain or Loss 0 likes
Gain or loss in the sale or disposition of a capital asset
Capital Stock 1 like
Total amount invested by the owner of a business in exchange for common stock shares at par value
Capital, Column 1 like
Uppermost part of a column crowning the shaft and receiving the weight of the slab, beam, etc
Capitalization 0 likes
Determining the capitalized value (capital value) of a real property investment by dividing the annual income by an expected capitalization rate
Financial resources accessible to a business
Capitalization Rate 0 likes
Interest rate employed in the capitalization process describing the risk and rates of return on investments; also called Cap Rate
Capitol 0 likes
A building where a state legislative body congregates
Building in Washington, DC where the U.S. Congress congregates
Capped Rate 0 likes
Mortgage interest rate is limited to a specific amount over a defined period, although it fluctuates below that point
Car Wash 0 likes
A building that has a business specifically for washing cars
Carbon 1 like
A non-metallic element in diamond and graphite, or as part of coal, petroleum, asphalt, and organic compounds, and limestone and other carbonates; when combined with iron produces steel; employed as an electrode in arc welding; and holds weld metal in a mold
Carbon Black 0 likes
Black pigment made by burning natural gas in an inadequate air provision
Carbon Dioxide 1 like
Compound of carbon and oxygen in nature; employed as a refrigerant
Carbon Filter1 like
carbon filter
Air filter employing activated carbon as an air cleansing agent
Carbon Monoxide 0 likes
A colorless, odorless toxic gas produced by incomplete burning of carbon
Carbon Steel 0 likes
Low carbon or mild steel
Carbon Tetrachloride 1 like
Colorless nonflammable, highly toxic liquid employed as a solvent
Carbon-Arc Cutting 0 likes
Arc-cutting process where metals are severed by the heat of an arc between a carbon electrode and the base metal
Carbon-Arc Welding 0 likes
Arc-welding process where coalescence is achieved by heating with an electric arc between a carbon electrode and the metal without shielding
Carbonation 1 like
Reaction between the products of portland cement and carbon dioxide that produces calcium carbonate
Carborundum1 like
Carbon and silicon compound employed as an abrasive; trademark
Carcinogen 0 likes
A substance that causes cancer
Card Access Control 0 likes
Entry device using a small magnetized plastic card
Carnuba Wax 1 like
Hard wax obtained primarily from Brazil
Carpenter 0 likes
A woodworker who specializes in structures
Carpenter Pencil2 likes
carpenter pencil
Tough pencil with a thick rectangular lead to mark lumber
Carpenters Level1 like
carpenters level
A hand device made of a wood or metal bar with spirit levels, used for determining evenness of construction parts
Carpenters Saw1 like
carpenters saw
See Handsaw
Carpentry, Finish 0 likes
Finished woodwork including doors, base, casing, stairs and paneling installed after plastering or drywall
Carpentry, Rough 0 likes
Initial boxing, framing and sheeting of a wood frame building
Carpet2 likes
Fabric used as a soft floor covering over the entire floor and fastened to it; include Woven, Tufted, Knitted, Flocked, and Punched carpets
Carpet & Rug Institute (CRI) 2 likes
P.O. Box 2048, Dalton, Georgia 30722 Tel: (706) 278-3176, http://www.carpetrug.org/
Carpet Base 3 likes
Vinyl or rubber base connected to the wall with adhesive as a finish for carpet
A base made of carpet
Carpet Lining 0 likes
See Carpet Padding
Carpet Padding2 likes
carpet padding
Felt, jute, hair, foam, or plastic rubber underlay positioned under carpet to improve walkway comfort, absorbing pile-crushing force and reducing sound transmission; also called Cushioning, Underlay or Lining
Carpet Plate 0 likes
Slender ornamental metal piece with rough edges of carpet connected at doorways or at the junction of carpet to another flooring material to produce a clean end point
Carpet Strip1 like
carpet strip
See Base Shoe
Carpet Tack1 like
carpet tack
A little tack employed for attaching carpet to wood flooring
Carpet Tile1 like
carpet tile
Carpet in sheets or small squares installed with adhesive
Carport 0 likes
An open-sided structure with a roof to house a car, usually next to a house
Carrel 0 likes
A small cubicle in a library for a reader
Carrene 0 likes
Refrigerant in Group One (R-11); chemical combination of carbon, chlorine and fluorine
Carriage 1 like
Framing support of the steps of a stairway; also called Rough Horse and Stair Horse
Carriage Bolt1 like
carriage bolt
Bolt with a round smooth threaded head; a bolt with a square neck directly under the head to inhibit rotation
Carrier Channel 0 likes
Primaru supporting metal parts employed in constructing suspended ceilings
Carrier, Fixture 0 likes
A mounting frame built into a wall to hold a plumbing fixture
Carrying Channels 1 like
See Channels, Carrying
Cartouche 0 likes
Ornamental frame
Cartridge 0 likes
Small containers holding material for a larger device in which it is inserted
Disposable element consisting of filtering media and employed in pool filters
Cartridge Filter1 like
cartridge filter
A swimming pool filter with a disposable cartridge
Cartridge, Extinguisher 0 likes
Cylindrical container of a fire prevention device that contains chemicals to suppress fire
Carved Carpet 0 likes
See Sculptured Carpet
Carved Door 0 likes
A door finished with cuts on its surface to enhance its appearance
Cascade Sequence 0 likes
Buildup sequence where weld beads are deposited in overlapping layers in welding; in manual shielded metal arc welding, a back step sequence is generally employed. See Block Sequence and Buildup Sequence
Cascade System 0 likes
System where two or more refrigerating systems are used in series; employs a machine evaporator to cool the condenser of another machine; produces extremely low temperatures
Case Joint 0 likes
A joint employed in cabinetmaking where the two pieces are joined at an angle and fastened by dowels
Case Mould 2 likes
Plaster shell that secures parts of a plaster mold in position; also employed with gelatin and wax moulds to inhibit distortions during pouring
Case, Refrigerated2 likes
case refrigerated
A cold storage case; used to store perishable items
Casein 0 likes
Protein from milk, soluble in alkaline water solution; casein is employed in manufacturing water paints
Casein Glue 1 like
Adhesive consisting of casein (milk curd), lime, and sodium salt; water is added to this dry powder
Casein Paints 0 likes
Paint where casein solution has replaced the binder
Casement 0 likes
Wood or metal frames enclosing part or the entire window sash that can be opened with hinges attached to the vertical edges
Casement Window 1 like
A window with hinges on one of the vertical sides that opens just like a door
Casework 0 likes
Assembled cabinetry or millwork
Cash Accounting 0 likes
Record of accounting when income is received and expenses are paid out as cash; also called Cash Basis
Cash Basis 1 like
See Cash Accounting
Cash Flow 1 like
Cash income after all cash outlays and reserves have been deducted from the gross income
Casing 0 likes
Wood trim molding mounted around a door or window
Casing Bead 1 like
Metal or wood molding that separates materials as an edge, or around openings as a stop
Casing Trim 0 likes
Metal or wood material decorative finish mounted around windows and doors
Casino 0 likes
Building or room for gambling and other amusement
Small summerhouse
CASSB 0 likes
Cedar Shake & Shingle Bureau
Cassiterite 0 likes
Inorganic mineral source of tin and tin oxide
Cast 0 likes
Tendency of one color to look like another
Cast Iron1 like
cast iron
High carbon content iron which is not classified as steel
Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute (CISPI) 2 likes
3008 Preston Station Drive, Hixson, TN, 37343 Tel: (423) 842-2122, URL: http://www.cispi.org/
Cast Iron Wheel Guard 0 likes
Lineal component positioned at the intersection of a wall and horizontal surface to restrict vehicle wheels from nearing a wall surface, protecting it from damage
Cast Stone 0 likes
Ornamental concrete cast in molds for construction
Cast-In-Place 0 likes
Mortar or concrete positioned properly to harden as part of the structure, unlike precast concrete
Cast-In-Place Concrete 1 like
Concrete poured in its intended position
Casting 0 likes
Cast in a mold like cast iron or cast aluminum
Casting Bed 0 likes
Form where precast concrete units are constructed
Casting Mold 0 likes
Use of gelatin, wax, or plaster molds to produce plaster decoration
Casting Plaster1 like
casting plaster
Fast-setting gypsum plaster employed to secure marble to walls; see Gypsum Molding Plaster
Castor Oil 1 like
Nondrying oil produced from the castor bean; may be transformed into a drying oil by chemical treatment
Casts 0 likes
Finished plaster product from a mold employed as enrichments and glued in place
Catalyst 0 likes
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing a change; makes a change happen
Catch 0 likes
Hardware for securing a door, window, or cabinet door
Catch Basin1 like
catch basin
A container for holding water runoff from a defined area; generally a shallow concrete box with a grating and a discharge pipe leading to a plumbing or storm water system
Catenary 0 likes
The curve adopted by heavy cable, rope, or chain of uniform density, hanging between two points, or something with this shape
Catface 1 like
Rough depression or blemish in the finish coat of plaster due to variations in base coat thickness
Cathedral 0 likes
A church serving as the official seat of a diocesan bishop
Cathode 0 likes
Negative electrode in an electrolytic cell
The positive terminal of a primary cell such as a battery
Cathode-Ray Tube 0 likes
A high-vacuum tube in which cathode rays result in a luminous image on a fluorescent screen
Catwalk 1 like
A narrow walkway
Caulk, Masonry1 like
caulking compound
Resilient material used to seal cracks or openings where masonry butts against other materials
Caulking 0 likes
A flexible material used to seal a gap between two surfaces such as between pieces of siding or the corners in tub walls
To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt plastic cement to prevent leaks
Caulking Compound1 like
caulking compound
A soft, plastic material used for sealing joints in buildings and other structures where normal structural movement may occur; remain plastic for long periods after application; dispensed by guns and knives and in extruded preformed shapes
Caulking Gun2 likes
caulking gun
A hand tool that dispenses liquid caulking into joints and seams
Caustic Lime 0 likes
Caveat 2 likes
A warning or proviso
Caveat Emptor 1 like
A warning that the buyer purchases at its own risk
Cavetto 0 likes
A quarter hollow molding; the opposite of a quarter round
Cavitation 0 likes
Localized gas or part vacuum in a liquid stream; caused by mechanical force such as a pump impeller or in fluids at high speeds
Cavity 0 likes
A hollow or void space within a material
Cavity Wall Anchor 0 likes
A metal tool installed on a masonry wall to secure attachments or masonry to an existing or back-up wall
Product of the day

How to Fix Plumbing Noises In Your Home

plumbing fiberglass insulationTo diagnose loud plumbing, you must first determine whether the unwanted sounds occur on the system's inlet side - in other words, when water is turned on - or on the drain side. Noises on the inlet side have various causes: excessive water pressure, worn valve and faucet parts, poorly connected pumps or other appliances, incorrectly placed pipe fasteners, and plumbing runs with excessive tight bends or other restrictions. Noises on the drain side usually originate from poor location or, as with some inlet side noise, a layout with tight bends.


Hissing that occurs when a faucet is opened slightly generally signals excessive water pressure. Consult your local water company if you suspect this problem. They will tell you about the water pressure in your area and if necessary, can install a pressure reducing valve on the incoming water supply pipe.


Thudding, often accompanied by shuddering pipes when a faucet or appliance valve is turned off, is a condition called water hammer. The noise and vibration are caused by the reverberating wave of pressure in the water, which suddenly has no place to go. Sometimes opening a valve that discharges water quickly into a section of piping with a restriction, elbow, or tee fitting can produce the same condition. Water hammer can usually be fixed by installing fittings called air chambers or shock absorbers in the plumbing to which the problem valves or faucets are connected. These devices permit the shock wave produced by the halted flow of water to dissipate in the air, which unlike water, is compressible. Older plumbing systems may have short vertical sections of capped pipe behind walls on faucet runs for the same purpose; these can eventually fill with water, reducing or destroying their effectiveness. The solution is to drain the water system by turning off the main water supply valve and opening all faucets. Then open the main supply valve and close the faucets one at a time, starting with the faucet closest to the valve and ending with the one furthest away.

Chattering or Screeching

Intense chattering or screeching that occurs when a valve or faucet is turned on, and that usually disappears when the fitting is fully open, signals loose or defective internal parts. The solution is to replace the valve or faucet with a new one. Pumps and appliances such as washing machines and dishwashers can transfer motor noise to pipes if they are improperly connected. Link these items to plumbing with plastic or rubber hoses - never rigid pipe - to separate them.

Other Inlet Side Noises

Creaking, squeaking, scratching, snapping, and tapping are usually caused by the expansion or contraction of pipes, generally copper ones supplying hot water. The sounds occur as the pipes slide against loose fasteners or strike nearby house framing. You can often pinpoint the location of the problem if the pipes are exposed; just follow the sound when the pipes are making noise. Most likely, you will discover a loose pipe hanger or an area where pipes lie so close to floor joists or other framing pieces that they clatter against them. Attaching foam pipe insulation around the pipes at the point of contact should resolve the problem. Be sure straps and hangers are secure and provide sufficient support. Where possible, pipe fasteners should be connected to large structural elements such as foundation walls instead of framing; doing this reduces the transmission of vibrations from plumbing to surfaces that can amplify and transfer them. If attaching fasteners to framing is unavoidable, wrap pipes with insulation or other resilient material where they contact fasteners, and sandwich the ends of new fasteners between rubber washers when installing them. Correcting plumbing runs that suffer from flow-restricting tight or numerous bends is a last resort that should be performed only after consulting a skilled plumbing contractor. Unfortunately, this situation is common in older homes that may not have been built with indoor plumbing or that have been through several remodels, particularly by unprofessional contractors.

Drainpipe Noise

On the drain side of plumbing, the main goals are to eradicate surfaces that can be struck by falling or rushing water and to insulate pipes to contain unavoidable sounds. In new construction, bathtubs, shower stalls, toilets, and wall-mounted sinks and basins should be set on or against resilient under-layments to lower the transmission of sound through them. Water-saving toilets and faucets are less noisy than conventional models; install them instead of older types even if codes in your area still allow older fixtures. Drainpipes that do not run vertically to the basement or that branch into horizontal pipe runs supported at floor joists or other framing present especially troubling noise problems. These pipes are large enough to radiate substantial vibration; they also carry significant amounts of water, which makes the situation worse. In new construction, use cast-iron soil pipes (the large pipes that drain toilets) if you can afford them. Their immense size contains much of the noise made by water traversing them. Also, avoid routing drainpipes in walls shared with bedrooms and rooms where people gather. Walls containing drainpipes should be soundproofed as stated earlier, using double panels of sound-insulating fiberboard and wallboard. Pipes can be wrapped with special fiberglass insulation made for the purpose; these pipes have an impervious vinyl skin that sometimes containing lead. Results are not always acceptable.

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